Thong Thai Seeds co.ltd.
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|How to grow Sweet Corn |
How to grow Sweet Corn
Preparing the Soil
1. Prepare the soil: For best results use 1½ - 2 tons of fertilizer/manure per rai.
2. Plow thoroughly making sure that depth is between 10”-12”
3. After plowing, leave the area undisturbed for 7-10 days
4. After 7-10 days use 30-50kg per rai of fertilizer/manure
Single Row Planting
1. Each row must be separated by 75cm
2. Each stalk distance must be between 25cm-30cm
3. Use between 1kg-1½ of seed for each rai
4. Each rai can support between 7,000-8,500 corn stalks
Double Row Planting
1. Corn can handle a little crowding, so try planting double rows to save space. Double rows are simply two regular rows put together planted 30cm apart. The major difference is that double rows need a little more fertilizer/manure.
2. Like single row planting, the number of seeds and the amount of stalks remains the same.
Keeping Your Crop Healthy: Fertilizing
1. After 20-25 days of growth use 25kg-30kg per rai of 46-0-0 Formula
How to Fertilize
1. Make sure that the soil is properly irrigated
2. Using the 46-0-0 Formula, sprinkle the formula around each stalk. Take special precaution to make sure that the formula does not touch the stalk. Doing so will damage the plant
3. After 40-45 days if the corn stalks appear unhealthy or yellowish in color repeat the above steps.
Watering Your Crops
1. One of the most important steps to producing a healthy crop is the amount of water. Corn needs plenty of it, especially just before the appearance of the silk and a couple of weeks after the silk turns brown. This constitutes the kernel-filling stage. Also, avoid overhead watering of plants with sprinklers. Of course, deep watering is always better than "teasing" your corn plants with sprinkling.
2. Make sure that the soil is not soggy.
3. Lack of water will produce poor corn quality and the result will be stunted growth and unhealthy looking crops. Lack will water will also produce corn that is not sweet.
1. Usually sweet-corn is ready to harvest from 70-75 days. However, it is best to harvest your corn 20-25 days after the silk first appears on the corn.
2. During the winter months or cold spells, the amount of time needed to harvest may vary.
3. As soon as you harvest your corn, it is very important that you make sure your crop is transported to your buyer.
Corn earworms primarily cause economic damage to fresh market and processing sweet corn and hybrid dent seed corn. They also feed on field corn, tomatoes, lettuce, peppers, and snap beans. Larvae feed in the tips of the ears, devouring kernels and contaminating the ear. While even severe infestations damage fewer than 10%of the kernels, this amount is enough to cause serious economic losses in fresh market sweet corn due to consumer rejection, and in hybrid dent seed corn due to the high value of the crop. The value of processing sweet corn suffers as well since damaged tips must be removed before processing. Although some earworm damage can be found in commercial dent corn fields, the extent of loss is less severe and doesn’t warrant control.
Treatment timing is critical because once larvae enter the ear, they’re protected from insecticides. Therefore, control is targeted at the eggs and at the young larvae before they crawl into the ear. The amount of time for egg hatch varies with temperature, but during periods of hot summer days and nights, eggs can hatch within 24 hours after they’re laid. Each day’s delay in treatment may reduce the number of clean ears by 10 to 15%. Insecticides must be present on vulnerable silks when eggs hatch. On sweet corn, treat every 3 to 4 days beginning when silks first appear and continuing until they brown. On hybrid dent seed corn, make 1 to 2 applications during the vulnerable sulking stage. Treatments made within 10 days of harvesting fresh market sweet corn, or 18 days of harvesting processing sweet corn or dent seed corn, will have little effect on improved product quality. Select an insecticide with residual activity of a few days, such as the synthetic pyrethroids. For optimal coverage, set spray pressure to at least 100 psi and deliver 47.3 to 95 liters of finished spray per rai using two nozzles directed at the ear zone from each side of the row.
Chilli thrips attacks all above ground parts of its host plants, and prefers the young leaves, buds and fruits. Heavy feeding damage turns tender leaves, buds, and fruits bronze to black in color. Damaged leaves curl upward and appear distorted. Infested plants become stunted or dwarfed, and leaves with petioles detach from the stem, causing defoliation in some plants. The abundance of chilli thrips is low in the rainy season, but becomes high during the dry season.
Chilli Thrips Management
The insecticides listed in the table below were found to suppress the chilli thrips.
Downy Mildew (fungus - Peronosclerospora sorghi): Infected plants are chlorotic, stunted and have striped leaves. Infected leaves have a downy growth on the underside, toward the basal part. Potential infection is increased when the crop is grown in soil previously grown to infected sorghum, field corn, or sweet corn. Although high populations of spores are produced on the leaf surface, they are short-lived and require extended periods of high humidity for infection. Over wintering spores produced between leaf veins exist in the soil for long periods. Practices which hasten the breakdown of crop residue will help reduce the amount of inoculum carried over in the soil. Varieties vary in their reaction to this disease. Growers should consult their
Control: The best way to prevent downy mildew is to avoid the environmental conditions that favor the disease. Prune or stake plants and remove any weeds to improve air circulation. Water in the early morning hours (avoiding overhead watering if possible) to give the plants time to dry out during the day. Keep the ground under infected plants clean during the fall and winter to prevent the disease from spreading. Remove and destroy any plants with serious infection. Choose resistant varieties whenever possible. Downy mildew is comparatively easy to control on most plants when the foliage and fruit are kept protected by organic fungicides. If you catch the infection early, apply a copper spray/dust to diseased and surrounding plants every 7-10 days until harvest
Common rust of corn can be easily recognized by the development of dark, reddish-brown pustules scattered over both the upper and lower surface of the corn leaves. Pustules appear oval to elongate in shape, are generally small, less than 1/4 inch long, and are surrounded by the leaf epidermal layer, which appears as a whitish covering. These pustules may appear on any above ground portion of the plant, but are most abundant on the leaves.
In field corn, highly resistant hybrids are available and most hybrids possess some degree of resistance. Pop and sweet corn can be quite susceptible. In seasons where considerable rust is present on the lower leaves prior to silking and the weather forecast is for unseasonably cool, wet weather, chemical control may be necessary. Fungicides are available for rust control. Consult label recommendations for rates and application timing. Early application is necessary for effective disease control.